Last Updated on : Monday, Oct 3 2022 11:39AM

River Pollution Control Projects : Introduction

U P Jal Nigam is the Principal Implementing Agency for River Pollution Control Projects in the state of UP. Its task is to prevent direct flow of waste water into important river bodies of the state, so as to maintain water quality of these rivers to a satisfactory level. This is being done by diverting waste water/ domestic sewage flow to appropriate Treatment sites before being allowed to drain out in river bodies. So for 15 major towns located on the Banks of River Ganga, Yamuna and Gomti have been provide with waste water treatment facilities for cleaning about 42 % of its domestic sewage flow.


With social and technical advancement world wide, the level of pollution is also increasing in land, air and water. Land is subjected to pollution by dumping of different kind of toxic and non toxic wastes, excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc. The air is subjected to pollution by harmful gases emerging out of industries, transport vehicles, fuel wood etc. The water, specially river water subjected to pollution due to direct discharge of domestic sewage, industrial waste, agriculture run off, washing of cloths, open defecation along river bank, cattle wallowing and throwing of carcasses or half burnt dead bodies etc. into the river. The river water pollution are from point sources and non point sources. The point sources are discharge of domestic sewage through open drains and/or from sewerage system, industrial waste etc. The non point sources of pollution are agriculture run off, washing of cloths, cattle wallowing and throwing of carcasses or half burnt dead bodies etc.

The rivers in India have religious importance, also the river water is a major source of drinking water for different towns and villages in the country. Due to increase in pollution level of the river water, the drinking water schemes are subjected to different level of pollution, thus causing different diseases, to its consumers, also the cost of treatment for purification of polluted river water increases tremendously. In the year 1985, the Government of India, initiated the program for the abatement of river pollution. To start the river pollution control program, the sacred river Ganga, was taken up in the beginning. The program named Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was launched by the Government of India in the year 1985 for conservation of the water quality of holy river Ganga. The objective of the Plan was to initiate action to prevent pollution of the river Ganga resulting due to direct discharge of domestic sewage and industrial waste, as also because of non point pollution due to cattle wallowing, washing of cloths and throwing of Carcasses or half burnt dead bodies etc. into the river.

The basis of the Ganga Action Plan was provided by survey report and recommendations made by Central Pollution Control Board. For effective implementation of the GAP, the Govt. of India constituted the Central Ganga Authority in February,1985. The authority is chaired by the Hon'ble Prime Minister of India with Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal as members along with some selected Union Ministers and Chief Secretaries as members. An inter departmental Steering Committee also was set up to formulate the strategy and the components of the Ganga Action Plan in detail and to administer and monitor the implementation of approved projects. In June, 1985, the Ganga Project Directorate was established under the ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. The purpose of this Directorate, which is headed by Project Director of the level of Additional Secretary to the Govt. of India, is to appraise and clear the projects prepared by State agencies, release of funds, coordination of various activities and to monitor the implementation of the Plan. This Directorate is now known as National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD).

GAP-Ganga Action Plan, GoAP- Gomti Action Plan, YAP - Yamuna Action Plan, GoI- Govt. Of India , GoUP- Govt. of U.P, NRCD- National River Conservation Directorate,&M - Operation and Maintenance,.C.E.A. - Cabinate Committee of Economic Affairs , S.T.P. - Sewage Treatment Plant.

The main objectives of the Ganga Action Plan are abatement of the pollution of the river to improve the river water quality by interception and diversion of the drains and sewers falling into the river, treatment of the domestic sewage to make it innocuous for disposal in the environment, to effect resource recovery where ever feasible, prevention of toxic and hazardous wastes from identified industrial units from entering in to the river, control of non point pollution of the river from human activities, defecation, cattle bathing, throwing of unburned or half burnt dead bodies and agriculture runoff etc. to conserve the bio-diversity of the river and to have an integrated river basin management approach, to under take research in consonance with the above objectives and to gain experience for taking up similar Action Plans for grossly polluted stretches of other rivers.

On the basis of surveys conducted, project profiles and Detailed Project Reports were framed by the State agencies to achieve the above objectives. The schemes were categorized as Core sector schemes and Non core sector schemes. Interception and diversion of point sources of river pollution by domestic waste water including construction and rehabilitation of interception sewers and pumping stations and construction of sewage treatment plants with emphasis on resource recovery were included in Core sector. Low cost sanitation, installation of improved crematoria, river front development and miscellaneous activates such as water quality monitoring, research of development, community participation through awareness programs and management of wastes from grossly polluting industries, etc., were included in Non core sector.

River Action Plan in Uttar Pradesh

In the State of Uttar Pradesh, the Department of Urban Development, Govt. of U.P. is the Nodal department for execution of River Action Plan and Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam is the Principal Implementing Agency.

Details of Sanctioned Projects Component wise

S.No.ComponentNo.of townCCEA CostTotal DPRs.Sanctioned DRPsFunds ReleasedExpend up to 12/2005No of Completed DRPs
1 Yamuna 8 414.67 145 144 293.016 335.744 287.673 144
2 Gomti 3 324.27 22 22 314.475 63.15 54.262 16
3 Ganga(Main Stem) 8 101.04 33 22 118.921 26.218 28.502 8
4 Ganga(Supreme Court) 3 18.14 17 10 12.737 3.979 4.531 4
5 Ganga Support Project 1 90.29 17 16 115.419 68.592 71.627 4
Total 23 948.41 234 214 854.568 497..683 446.594 176

District wise River Pollution Control Works

Description of Completed works

S.No.Name of citySewage Treatment Plant.
Pumping stationNos.Capacity (M.L.D.)Clean ToiletCremation Places
Cities of Ganga Action Plan Phase -I (also including in Phase - II)
1 Allahabad 10 1 60.0 2 2
2 Varanasi 8 3 101.80 3 1
3 Kanpur 10 3 171.0 41 2
4 Mirzapur/Vindyachal 2 1 14.0 4 3
5 Farukhabad 2 1 2.7 2 4
Other Cities included in Ganga Action Plan (Phase-II)
6 Saharanpur 3 1 38.0 19 3
7 Muzaffar Nagar 3 1 32.5 15 3
8 Gaziabad 3 3 129.0 50 13
9 Noida 1 3 70.0 15 10
10 Agra 8 3 90.25 84 20
11 Mathura 3 2 28.09 18 8
12 Brindawan 2 2 4.5 25 4
13 Etawa 1 1 10.0 20 10
District wise River Pollution Control Works
Cities on river Gomti
15 Sultanpur 1 1 1.70 4 2
16 Jaunpur ...... ...... ..... 5 3
Additional cities on river Ganga
17. Garhmukteshwar .... .... .... 6 ...
18. Mugalsarai .... ..... .... 10 ....
19 Gajipur .... .... .... 10 ....
20 Sadpur .... .... .... .... ....
21 Bijnaur ...... ..... .... 9 ....
22 Anoopcity .... .... .... 8 ...
23 Chunar .... .... .... 4 ...
Total 62 27 795.54 354 88