Water Supply Urban

Last Updated on : Monday, Jun 17 2019 1:03PM


The State of UP has a total population of 16.61crores as per Census figures of year 2001. Urban population of 3.46 crore is located in 627 towns of varying population sizes. Rural population of 13.15 crore is scattered in 97069 habited villages of the State. These villages comprise of about 260110 habitations.

It has been observed that the choice of settlement of human agglomerations has prominently been dominated by easy availability of water for drinking and agricultural purposes. It is also a fact that such agglomerations when developed along perennial source of water have grown rapidly in shape and size. The larger agglomerations were subsequently termed as urban agglomerations.

In the State of Uttar Pradesh development works in and around such agglomerations were being looked after by Provincial Public Works Department. Keeping in view the specialized knowledge and skill that is required to provide safe and potable drinking water, a Sanitary Engineering Branch was established in 1894-95 under the administrative control of Provincial Public Works Department. The head of the branch was designated as Sanitary Engineer to the Government. This branch was entrusted with the job of preparation of water supply schemes and supervision of works their on. The job of annual inspection of mechanical plants and machinery installed at various water works was entrusted to the manufacturing firms / engineers, who charged a sizable amount of fee from Local Authority concerned.

By the end of 19th Century water works in following eight towns were established to provide piped water supply:

1 Agra 3 Varanasi 5 Allahabad 7 Kanpur
2 Lucknow 4 Meerut 6 Mussoorie 8 Nainital

The following situations and events played important role in development of piped water supply facilities in the State under British Rule

The system of annual inspection by private agencies was soon found to be unsatisfactory since the interested firms/manufacturers were not found to give a wholly correct and impartial picture of the condition of water works plants.

In the Year 1916, the U.P. Municipalities Act was enacted. In this Act public duties of the Municipal Boards were defined and detailed procedure was laid down giving effect to various matters of public interest. Sources of raising Board's revenues were also prescribed

On the termination of the First World War, another installment of reforms was conferred in 1920, which created a diarchal form of Government placing wider powers in Indian hands, by associating them increasingly with civil administration and putting the "transferred subjects" under the direct control of responsible Ministers. In the year 1920, Secretary of State for India sent out a number of specialist officers on the basis of covenanted service, to introduce health schemes on more up to date lines based on western model, as was recommended by the Royal Sanitary Commission. Accordingly a batch of seven Specialist Officers (six Sanitary Engineers and one Mechanical Engineer) arrived in Allahabad on the eve of the Christmas of 1920; they were attached to Sanitary Engineering Branch. These Specialist Officers gave out many recommendations on various issues, which reconfirmed the special nature of job of Sanitary Engineering Branch besides its need for further strengthening & expansion.

In 1943 Bhore Health Survey and Development Committee was formed to carry out detailed investigations as to the cause of existing unhealthy conditions and prevalence of various diseases. The Committee Report was published in 1946 and as one of the measures to reduce incidence of diseases, the Committee recommended installation of protected water supply and proper drainage system.

Till the time of independence piped water supply was provided in 28 towns of the State. Period wise break- up of establishment or water works in these 28 towns co-relating the same with the growth and nomenclature of Sanitary Engineering Branch, is listed below

Up to 1900 Separate Sanitary Engineering Branch was created in 1894-95 in Provincial Public Works Department 8 Towns
Between 1901 and 1927 Public Health Engineering Department
was created in 1927
9 Towns
Between 1927 and 1938 when II World War was expected 6 Towns
Between 1938 and 1947 When India became independent in 1947 5 Towns
  Total up to independence 28 Towns

Realising the necessity and urgency of safe & potable drinking water, a separate department in the name of Local Self Government at Secretariat Level was created in the year 1949. In consequence to this Public Health Engineering Department was christened as Local Self Government Engineering Department in the year 1949. Keeping in view the entirely changed situation and pressure on providing other civic amenities as well, the State Government decided to finance such projects where- in a component of loan repayable in easy installments was introduced for such category of towns, which had repayment potential. Side by side efforts were made to seek financial assistance from Life Insurance Corporation of India, which did come, to rescues but only in a very limited way. Efforts were also made to seek soft term loans from International Monitory Fund / World Bank. World Bank put forward a condition that in order to get soft term loans, it would be essential for the State Government to constitute an independent body in the State, who should be made responsibility for repayment of World Bank loan and execution of projects to be financed by the Bank and normal budgetary allocations. As a consequence to this condition the State Government promulgated an ordinance in February 1975 and converted Local Self Government Engineering Department into a corporation by the name of Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam. This ordinance was subsequently converted into an Act named as Uttar Pradesh Water Supply & Sewerage Act, 1975 (Act N0 43 of 1975). In pursuance of this Act, Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam came into existence with effect from 18th June 1975.

World Bank assisted in strengthening and expansion of drinking water facilities in 5 KAVAL (Kanpur, Agra, Varanasi, Allahabad, and Lucknow) towns, which were the most populous and important cities of the State. World Bank also assisted in implementation of water supply schemes in the following districts:

1 Bundelkhand Region Jhansi. Jalau , Banda, Hamirpur
2 Kumaon Region Nainital,  Almora,  Pithoragarh
3 Garhwal Region Dehradoon , Uttar Kashi ,Pauri Garhwal, Chamoli


The 2001 census population of U P is 16.61 crore. The urban population is 3.26 crore, which constitute about 20 percent of the population of the State. There are 623 towns in the state. all 623 towns have been covered with piped water supply, but still a very large number of towns either do not have water supply as per the prescribed standards or they lack in terms of storage capacity or distribution system. Besides, the old distribution system in big towns has already outlived it's useful life and needs to be replaced immediately. As per norms, the rates of water supply is as follows :

TownsNos.Rate of wather supplyin (LPCD)
Mega Towns 3 150
Towns with population more than 1 lac (where sewerage exists or is expected) 34 135
 Other towns 586 70

The status of availability of water supply against the norms in 623 towns is as follows:

Availability of WaterNumber of Towns
Less than 25% of demand 20
25% to 50% of demand 96
50% to 75% of demand 153
75% to 100% of demand 161
more than 100% of demand 193


Accelerated Urban Water Supply Program - This is a centrally sponsored program with financial support of GOI and Govt.of U.P. in the ratio of 50:50. The program was started in the year 1994-95 and is being implemented in phases in 425 towns having population less than 20,000 as per 1991 census Out of these 425 towns GOI has sanctioned schemes for 390 towns costing Rs. 308.30 crore and remaining 35 towns are already having adequate water supply system. Out of 390 schemes, 202 schemes have been commissioned till date and remaining 188 are under construction which are scheduled to be completed by March 2007,after which the program will come to an end.

District Plan - The state Govt. included urban water supply under district plan for the first time in the year 2003-04 and a budget of Rs. 1119.65 lacs was sanctioned which was subsequently increased to Rs. 2000.00 lacs and Rs. 5966.68 lacs in the year 2004-05 and 2005- 06. For the year 2006-07 The proposed outlay is Rs. 5967.00 lacs.

Urban Water Supply Program- Normal - After the 74th constitutional amendment, the practice of giving aid to urban local bodies for implementing water supply scheme was discontinued. However, from the year 2005-06 the program has been revived and a budget provision of Rs 2680 lacs has been made for water supply in various towns of the state. For the year 2006-07 The proposed outlay is Rs. 1000.00 lacs.

National Urban Renewal Mission(NURM) - The Govt. of India has launched National Urban Renewal Mission on 3rd December 2005 for providing infrastructure facilities in towns having population of more than 10 lacs. Under this program 7 towns of UP namely Kanpur, Agra, Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknoe, Meerut and Mathura have been included. The funding pattern of schemes under this program will be 50% from GOI, 20% from state Govt. and 30% from the concerned local body. A budget provision of Rs. 6833.00 lacs has been made in the budget proposals for the year 2006-07.

Urban Infrastructure Development For Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT)- For towns having population up to 10 lacs, Urban Infrastructure Development For Small and Medium Towns program has been proposed. The funding pattern of schemes under this program will be 80% from GOI, 10% from state Govt. and 10% from the concerned local body. A budget provision of Rs. 11000.00 lacs has been made in the budget proposals for the year 2006-07.

Urban Water Supply / Sewerage - Special Achievements of last 2 years

Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Water Supply Project, Kanpur costing Rs. 502.84 crores which included construction of a barrage across the river Ganga was inaugurated by Hon'ble Chief Minister of UP on May 11, 2005.

A 50 Cusec Water Supply Project with Upper Ganga Canal as source of raw water for the colonies of Awas Evam Vikas Parishad, Ghaziabad Development Authority & Noida costing Rs 121.88 crores was inaugurated by Hon'ble Chief Minister of UP on November 29, 2004.

A 270 Cusec Water Supply Conveyance main Project for Delhi water supply from Upper Ganga Canal to Sonia Vihar water works in Delhi costing about Rs. 150 crores completed.

A Budget povision of Rs. 123.20 crores has been made for Sewerage projects in various towns during the FY 2005-06. Such huge allocation for sewerage schemes has been made for the first time after independence.

The grant-in-aid to Urban Local Bodies for implementation of water supply projects in urban areas which was discontinued after the 74th constitutional amendment has been revived in the FY 2005-06 with a budget provision of Rs. 26.80 crores.

Two new programs namely 'National Urban Renewal Mission' and Infrastructure Development In Small & Medium Towns' have been started from the year 2005-06 for improvement of urban infrastructure

The Urban Water Supply Projects have been included in the District Plan from the year 2003-04 and substantial provisions have been made in the state budget in successive years.

Urban Water Supply / Sewerage

Standard Rate of   Water Supply as per the Manual of Government of India
 S.No.CategoryNos.of townsRate of water supply in litres per capita per day
  1. Mega Cities (Kanpur, Lucknow and Varanasi) 3 150
  2. Towns having sewerage facility existing/contemplated 60 135
  3. Towns other than mega cities and having sewerage facility existing/ contemplated 560 70

Due to continuous growth of population and geographical expansion, most of these towns do not have adequate water supply with respect to norms. The status of availability of water in nutshell is given below

1. Town with piped water supply 623
2. Towns having water supply adequate to meet 25% of demand 20
3. Town having water supply adequate to meet water demand in the range of 25% to 50% 96
4. Towns having water supply adequate to meet water demand in range of 50% to 75% 153
5. Towns having water supply adequate to meet water demand above 75% 161
6. Towns having adequate rate of water supply 193

The above categorization is mainly based upon the need of water source. It is relevant to record that in most of the towns other than those recently covered under Accelerated Urban water Supply Program, storage capacity and distribution system are also inadequate besides source. Rs. 3990 Crores is the estimated requirement of funds for strengthening and reorganization of water supply system in such towns of the State so as to bring them at par with prescribed norms.


The Government of India launched the Accelerated Urban Water Supply Program (AUWSP) in the year 1993-94 to provide drinking water facility in towns with population (1991 Census) less than 20,000. The program is centrally sponsored with financial support of Government of India and the State Government in the ratio of 50: 50

Out of 623 towns of UP, 425 towns have 1991 census population figure less than 20,000. Piped water supply facility in 35 of these towns has been found to be of satisfactory level. Such towns where the level or water supply have not been found satisfactory have been included under this program in NINE Phases as illustrated in the table given below

PhaseNumber of towns includedEstimated cost of the phase  in Rs. Lacs.Expenditure  in Rs. Lacs.Towns where projects have been commissioned
I. 41 2833.20 3129.21 41
II. 26 2213.33 2208.49 26
III. 25 1949.23 2069.38 25
IV. 41 3483.93 3390.16 41
V. 57 4505.01 3884.94 54
VI. 65 5150.14 2941.68 14
VII. 126 9807.95 2782.54 1
VII. 2


17.00 --
IX. 7


-- --
Total 390 30829.75 20423.40 202


State and Central Govt. provide some assistance from time to time keeping in view the essential needs of a particular town and availability of resources. Such on going projects are described below.


It is a centrally sponsored project for providing drinking water to Kanpur which was taken up in 1994. The original cost of the project was shared by Central and State Government on 50:50 basis. The project consists two components - Construction of barrage on river Ganga with original approved cost of Rs. 173.crore and Water Supply component with original approved cost of Rs. 90.40 crore. The estimated cost of barrage component has increased to Rs. 412.44 crores. The irrigation department who is constructing the barrage has start providing raw water from April 2005 with the result Raw Water Pumping Station and Water Treatment Plant have been commissioned in May 2005 and water supply started to zone 1, 2, 3,& 4 of West Service district of Kanpur. Works on both the components are in progress and are likely to be completed by June 2006


Construction of Gokul Barrage on river Yamuna for providing drinking water to Agra, Mathura and Vrindavan towns was taken up in the year 1990 and has since been completed.

An area of 10,400 square kilometers around Taj Mahal at Agra was earmarked as Taj Trapezium Zone for environmental protection of Taj Mahal and water supply projects for these towns falling within this area were taken up in 1998 and were being financed by Government of India.The estimated cost of the various water supply projects in these three towns and position of allotment of funds and expenditure their upon is given below:

WaterSupply Projects UnderTTZ program (all figuresin Rs. lacs)
S.No.Name of townLatest revised cost of the Water supply projectsFunds sanctioned under Taj Trapezium Zone projectExpenditure up to 10/2005Physical progress
1. AGRA 10762.43 7280.00 6230.34 67%
2. MATHURA & VRINDAVAN Ph-I  1542.30 4199.49 4202.20 80%
Ph-II  4067.50 70%
Ph-III  2720.82 970.00 600.00 20%
Rd.Re-850.35 - - -
TOTAL 19943.40 12949.49 11032.54  


River Yamuna is the principal source of raw water for water supply to Agra Town. But due to its ever increasing pollution level caused by discharge of toxic and chemically surcharged industrial and domestic sewage/waste water from towns in Haryana, Delhi & Noida and Ghaziabad in UP has rendered it beyond the treatment capacity of conventional water treatment plants resulting in acute shortage of drinking water to Agra town. Therefore, as a long term solution to the problem, it was decided in the meeting chaired by Cabinet Secretary, GOI on 14 March, 2005 that 150 cusecs ( Approx. 368 mld) of raw water be transported from Palra Head works (in district Bulandshshr) of Upper Ganga Canal to the two Water Works at Agra through a 130 km. long closed conduit of 2500/2200 mm PSC pipe. The proposal is expected to cost Rs. 355.68 crores. To fund this project GOI has entered into an agreement with Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC) on 02.12.2005.


Project for up gradation of water supply in mega city of Lucknow amounting to Rs. 102.60 Crore was started in 2001-02 with Special Central Assistance. Government of India provided Rs. 33.90 crore in three installments but later advised the state Govt. to finance the project from its own resources. The project consists of following works:

  • Rehabilitation and renovation of Aishbagh Water Works.
  • Strengthening of existing raw water rising main from Gaughat Intake Works to Aishbagh Water Works.
  • Segregation / replacement of feeder mains from Aishbagh Water Works to Five Zonal Pumping Stations.
  • Augmentation of Second Water Works of Balaganj.
  • Rehabilitation, interconnection and extension of distribution system.
  • Construction of new Zonal Pumping Stations at Rani Katra, Daulatganj, Yasinganj - Campwell Road and Aminabad .
  • Development of Water Supply System in area between Hardoi Road and Campwell Road .
  • Construction of 5 deep tubewells and 4 medium Tube wells.
  • Strengthening of Gaughat Raw Water Pumping Station.
The sewerage systems in the afersaid 55 towns cover respective towns patially
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