Water Supply Rural

Last Updated on : Monday, Jun 17 2019 1:03PM

BACKGROUND

The necessity of safe and potable water supply to the people in rural areas was recognized by BHORE Committee whose report was published in 1946. The report was based on census population of the year 1941 for the State of UP. According to this census, population in 107000 villages was about 493 lacs. Salient points of the recommendations of the committee are enumerated below:

  • Protected water supply should be provided within 35 years to the entire populations, 53 % of the population to be covered in first 20 years and the remaining in the next 15 years.
  • Protected water supply in the rural areas being almost unknown, the Committee recommended that the amenity of pure water supply should be extended to every inhabitant of the town or the village within a period of 35 years.

After independence sincere effort to provide safe & potable drinking water to rural population of the State was initiated with the launch of 1st Five Year Plan in the year 1951.It was planned that safe drinking water would be provided in 1000 villages at an estimated cost of Rs. 172.775 lacs. Central Government provided grant in aid to the tune of Rs. 86 lacs and a loan of Rs. 40 lacs for execution of this project. The project envisaged covering 750 villages by constructing Tank Type Stand Posts in adequate numbers near Tube Wells bored for Irrigation purposes in and around these villages. To cover the balance 250 villages, new Tube Wells were proposed to be bored. These works were completed by 31 March 1956.

In sixties UNICEF sponsored three projects of piped water supply for single/group of villages as PILOT PROJECTS. Location of these projects was selected in following villages in district Meerut, Barabanki and Gorakhpur for their being in the western, central and eastern part of the State.

 

1. District Meerut Mohkampur village.
2. District Barabanki Banki village.
3. District Gorakhpur Pharenda group of villages (9-11 villages)

In the same decade of 1960 some more piped water supply schemes for groups of villages in the water scarcity prone rural areas were taken up. In 1970 the GOI launched rural water supply program in a big way. To asses the need, a detailed village wise survey was carried out in the year 1972 in the entire State. Norms were laid down to identify water scarcity villages, which being: • Village in which water source does not exist within 1.6 Km. or up to 15 m. depth in plains and 100 m. elevation in hills.

Village which has water source affected by quality problem such as excess salinity, iron, fluoride, arsenic or other toxic elements.

Village which has water source that causes water borne diseases.

In the survey carried out in 1972, a total number of 35,506 villages were identified as scarcity villages. In a re-survey carried out in 1985 another 42,544 villages were identified as scarcity villages. Thus out of 1,12,566 revenue villages of the State as per 1981 census, 78,050 villages were identified as problem villages which included 66,408 villages of plains and 11,642 villages of Uttaranchal State. Priority was given to cover the scarcity villages first. Development of special type of hand pumps by UNICEF has been a break through in rural water supply. Installation of India Mark-II hand pumps based upon the one developed by UNICEF was introduced in Uttar Pradesh in the decade of 1980.

Sr. no.ContentView
1. List of Quality affected Habitations proposed to be covered during 2008-09
2. Rural Water Supply 2008-09 Physical Progress of Hand Pump Installation
3. New Hand Pump rebore Information 2009-10
4. Operations and Maintenance Status of Piped WaterSupply Schemes
5. Hand Pump rebore Information 2009-10
6. List of Schools without Handpumps 2011-12
Progress of Rural Piped Water Supply Schemes under Different Programmes
Sr. no.ContentView
1. Agra Zone
2. Allahabad Zone
3. Ghaziabad Zone
3. Gorakhpur Zone
5. Jhansi Zone
6. Lucknow Zone
7. Arsenic Affected Habitations in State of Uttar Pradesh
8. Progress Report of Soak-Pit
9. PROGRESS REPORT OF SOAK-PIT
10. Progress of RWH (May 2009)
11. Progress of Check Dam (May 2009)
12. Progress of RWH (July 2009)
13. Progress of Check Dam (July 2009)

Technology Mission on Drinking Water initiated in 1986 has been another Philip to the cause. This program was rechristened as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission in 1991. A survey was carried out between 1991-1993 in which 'habitation' was considered the unit rather than 'revenue village'. According to this survey the total no. of habitations of undivided UP was found to be 274,641. Status of coverage as on March 1995 was 1,48,704 FC (Fully covered by water supply), 95,411 PC (partially covered by water supply) and 30,526 NC (without safe drinking water source). This survey was again repeated during 2003-04 and the status of coverage was found to be as below:

1. 2,33,341 habitations Fully covered by water supply (FC)
2. 18,776 habitations Partially covered by water supply (PC)
3. 7,993 habitations Without safe drinking water source (NC)

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA NORMS FOR PROVIDING POTABLE DRINKING WATER

    1. While implementing the Rural Water Supply Schemes, the following norms has been adopted for providing drinking water to the population
      40 liters per capita per day (lpcd) for humans to meet the following daily requirements:
PurposeQuantity ( lpcd )
Drinking 3
Cooking 5
Bathing 15
Washing utensils & house 7
Ablution 10
  1. With normal output of 12 litres per minute, one handpump or stand post is provided for every 250 persons. In case of an independent habitation/ hamlet/ Tola/ Majra etc, if their population is less than 250 persons and there is no potable water source within its location, one source may be provided. A rural habitation not having any safe water source with a permanently settled population of 20 households or 100 persons, whichever is more, may be taken as the unit for coverage with funds under the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Program (ARWSP). However, the State Govt. could cover any habitation regardless of its size/population/ number of households with funds under the Minimum Need Program (MNP).
  2. DDP areas and SC/ST habitations with less than 100 persons can, however, be covered under the ARWSP.

CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM HABITATIONS

A habitation which fulfills the following criteria may be categorized as a Not Covered (NC)/ No Safe Source (NSS) habitation :

  1. The drinking water source/point does not exist within 1.6 km of the habitations in plains or 100 meter elevation in hilly areas. The source/point may either be public or private in nature. However, habitations drawing water from a private source may be deemed as covered only when the water is safe, of adequate capacity and, is accessible to all.
  2. Habitations which have a water source but are affected with quality problems such as excess salinity, iron, fluoride, arsenic or other toxic elements or biologically contaminated.
  3. Habitation where the quantum of availability of safe water from any source is not enough to meet drinking and cooking needs.

Hence, in case of quality effected habitations, even if they are fully covered as per the earlier norms it would be considered as a NSS habitation if it does not provide safe water at least for the purpose of drinking and cooking.

Habitations which have a safe drinking water source/point (either private or public) within 1.6 km. in plains and 100 meter in hill areas but the capacity of the system ranges between 10 lpcd to 40 lpcd, the habitation could be categorized as "Partially Covered (PC)". These habitations would, however, be considered as "Safe Source (SS)" habitations, subject to the water quality parameters.

All the remaining habitations may be categorized as "Fully Covered (FC)".

RELAXATION OF NORMS

  1. The norms may be relaxed after the coverage of all Not Covered (NC) / Partially Covered (PC) rural habitations in that State is achieved, as per the existing norms of 40 liters per capita per day. This relaxation may be subject to the condition that beneficiaries of the relaxed norms are willing to share a part of the capital cost (which should not be less than 10 %) and shoulder full responsibilities for subsequent Operation and Maintenance.
  2. In case, however, of schemes in quality affected villages or in multi-village schemes where the capital cost is very high, the schemes could be executed and implemented by the Government Departments, and water is supplied to individual villages at the periphery of each village. For drinking water distribution within the village, the beneficiaries would share a part of the capital cost (which should not be less than 10 % ) and shoulder full responsibilities for subsequent Operation and Maintenance of the village water distribution network, while Government Department/Board would maintain the main water supply system up to the village. Governments/Board may also charge water rates to the Panchayats/Village communities for bulk supply of water for drinking purpose. Such water charges and the village operation and maintenance cost would be fully met by the users/ beneficiaries.

ONGOING PROGRAMS

The works of rural water supply are being implemented under the following program:
1. ARWSP This program is centrally sponsored since the year 1977-78 and it is essential for the States to provide matching fund from its own resources. State of U.P. has been doing so under a program named as PMGY (Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna) renamed as Rural Water Supply-Sewerage implemented under District Plan.
2. QPV Water Supply Program Due to large-scale extraction of ground water for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes, concentration of chemical contents in ground water is gradually increasing. On account of this more and more villages/habitations are falling in the "Quality Problem village (QPV)" / "No Safe Source (NSS)" category. As an alternative to HPs, Tube Wells with Piped Water Supply systems are being provided in these NSS habitations under Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission. The cost of such projects is shared in the ratio of 75:25 by the Centre and the State.
3. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna (PMGY): Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna was introduced in the year 2000-01 by the GOI. The finances made available by the GOI to the State Govt. under this program are allowed to be used by the State Govt. in the District Plan as State resource to meet the needs of matching grant against ARWSP. This program has been merged with Rural Water Supply- Sewerage program.
4. Minimum Needs Program (MNP) This State sponsored program was started in year 1974-75. The program has been merged with PMGY since year 2002-03. From current financial year (2005-06) this has been changed to Rural Water Supply- Sewerage.
5. Water Supply Program in SC/ST Habitations This is a State sponsored program which is intended to benefit the SC/ST community especially. Hand pumps to be installed in this program are identified by District Authorities. This program has been merged with SCP/TSP component of Rural Water Supply-Sewerage.
6. Human Resources Development (HRD) To promote community involvement in the execution, operation and maintenance of water supply systems, community mobilization program are carried out at different levels. Funds under this program are received from GOI under Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission.
7. SWAJAL DHARA This is a centrally sponsored program launched on 25th December 2002. The key elements of this scheme are that the rural people should feel the ownership and, therefore, contribute al least 10 % of the capital-expenditure of the Scheme upfront; and the communities and their Gram Panchayats must shoulder the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) responsibility of the Schemes. This program is being implemented under the State Water Supply & Sanitation Mission.
8. Border Area Development This is 100% centrally sponsored program started during Seventh Plan with the objective of special development need of people living in remote and inaccessible areas adjoining international border of Imdia

Status as on 01-04-2007
Habitations covered 2,56,937
Hand pumps installed 1656033

ACHIEVEMENTS - 10th Five Year Plan(2002-03 to 2006-07)
Physical
DescriptionAchievement during 10th Plan
2002-032003-042004-052005-062006-07Total
Coverage of Habitations - - - 13994 9550 23544
Coverage of Quality Problem Habitations 391 535 364 412 922 2624
Tube Well
New - - 126 110 292 528
Rebore - 2 2 28 32
Hand Pump
New 60073 48378 75096 133517 168205 485269
Rebore 36834 22409 34015 27817 28049 149124

STATUS OF RWS AS ON 31.03.2007

As per survey carried out in 2004, 2,33,341 habitations were fully covered with water supply as per GOI norm of 40 lpcd i.e. one hand pump for every 250 person out of total 260110 habitations.

Population Coverage : As per survey 2004 1302.95 lacs rural population out of 1318.86 lacs have been provided with safe drinking water which makes the coverage percent as 98.8.

1. No. of Piped water supply schemes being maintained by Jal Nigam 1037
2. Habitations covered by 1037 PWS 28,923
3. No. of India Mark-II hand pumps installed 1656033
4. Balance Habitations affected with Water Quality Problem 5043
5. No. of Quality Problem Habitations covered by PWS 7160

92 Rural water supply schemes of Bundelkhand region comprising of district Banda, Chitrakoot, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Jhansi, Jalaun and Lalitpur are being maintained by Chitrakoot and Jhansi Jal Sansthans.<. p="">During the year 2000-01 the Govt. of India revised the guidelines for Hand Pumps from 250 persons per hand pump to 150 persons per hand pump based on a Demand Driven Approach with the community to share 10 % of capital cost and full responsibility of O&M.

  1. In the year 2006-07, 1,68205 India Mark II hand pumps have been installed
  2. During the year 2006-07, 2380 NC and 7170 PC habitations have been covered.
  3. In the year 2006-07 as many as 150 piped water supply schemes have been completed .

10th Five Year Plan Proposals/Achievements so far

PHYSICAL
ProgramTenth Plan 2002-07 Physical TargetPhysical Target for Yr. 2005-2006Physical Achievement 2005-06
up to Dec. 2005)
Habitations
coverage
Hand Pumps InstallationHabitationsHand PumpsHabitationsHand Pumps
NewRe boreNewRe boreNewRe bore
MNP/ PMGY / RWSS 3000 N 30000 60000
AEDP 2000 N 20000 50000 22 NSS+298 N 36763 19998 181N 19505 22241
SC/ST-RWSS 500 N 20000 15000 5 N 14145 3869 4406 2031
ARWSP 1500 N 10000 15000 75 N 6580
QPV 10000 NSS 80000 125000 1500 NSS+ 500 N 65908 23867 182 NSS+256 N 30491 24272

Note :- For Abbreviations used herein may please refer to next page.

ARWSP Accelerated Rural Water Supply Program DDP District Development Program
FC Fully Covered habitation GOI Government Of India
HP Hand Pump LSGED Local Self Government Engineering Department
MNP Minimum Needs Program NC Not Covered habitation
NSS No Safe Source habitation O&M Operation and Maintenance
PC Partially Covered habitation PMGY Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna
PWS Piped Water Supply Scheme QP Quality Problem
QPV Quality Problem Village RGNDWM Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission
SC/ST

Scheduled Caste / Scheduled Tribe

   

Financial (In Rs. Lacs)

ProgramOutlay for Tenth Plan 2002-07OUTLAY for Yr. 2005-2006BudgetProvisions for
Yr. 2005-06
Financial Achievement
2005-06
(up to Dec-05)
MNP / PMGY / RWSS 90597.00 17275.68 17275.68 17275.68
RWSS-SCP 10000.00 13330.47 14753.74 8511.56
RWSS-TCP 166.57 166.57 33.23
ARWSP 90680.00 24764.00 24764.00 14186.05
QPV 15000.00 1456.71 1456.71 1200.00
Total 206277.00      

Progress of Rural Water Supply Program 2005-2006 at a Glance

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